Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population (2022)

Table of Contents
Footnote 1 Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 Footnote 6 Footnote 7 Footnote 8 Footnote 9 Footnote 10 Footnote 11 Footnote 12 Footnote 13 Footnote 14 Footnote 15 Footnote 16 Footnote 17 Footnote 18 Footnote 19 Footnote 20 Footnote 21 Footnote 22 Footnote 23 Footnote 24 Footnote 25 Footnote 26 Footnote 27 Footnote 28 Footnote 29 Footnote 30 Footnote 31 Footnote 32 Footnote 33 Footnote 34 Footnote 35 Footnote 36 Footnote 37 Footnote 38 Footnote 39 Footnote 40 Footnote 41 Footnote 42 Footnote 43 Footnote 44 Footnote 45 Footnote 46 Footnote 47 Footnote 48 Footnote 49 Footnote 50 Footnote 51 Footnote 52 Footnote 53 Footnote 54 Footnote 55 Footnote 56 Footnote 57 Footnote 58 Footnote 59 Footnote 60 Footnote 61 Footnote 62 Footnote 63 Footnote 64 Footnote 65 Footnote 66 Footnote 67 Footnote 68 Footnote 69 Footnote 70 Footnote 71 Footnote 72 Footnote 73 Footnote 74 Footnote 75 Footnote 76 Footnote 77 Footnote 78 Footnote 79 Footnote 80 Footnote 81 Footnote 82 Footnote 83 Footnote 84 Footnote 85 Footnote 86 Footnote 87 Footnote 88 Footnote 89 Footnote 90 Footnote 91 Footnote 92 Footnote 93 Footnote 94 Footnote 95 Footnote 96 Footnote 97 Footnote 98 Footnote 99 Footnote 100 Footnote 101 Footnote 102 Footnote 103 Footnote 104 Footnote 105 Footnote 106 Footnote 107 Footnote 108 Footnote 109 Footnote 110 Footnote 111 Footnote 112 Footnote 113 Footnote 114 Footnote 115 Footnote 116 Footnote 117 Footnote 118 Footnote 119 Footnote 120 Footnote 121 Footnote 122 Footnote 123 Footnote 124 Footnote 125 Footnote 126 Footnote 127 Footnote 128 Footnote 129 Footnote 130 Footnote 131 Footnote 132 Footnote 133 Footnote 134 Footnote 135 Footnote 136 Footnote 137 Footnote 138 Footnote 139 Footnote 140 Footnote 141 Footnote 142 Footnote 143 Footnote 144 Footnote 145 Footnote 146 Footnote 147 Footnote 148 Footnote 149 Footnote 150 Footnote 151 Footnote 152 Footnote 153 Footnote 154 Footnote 155 Footnote 156 Footnote 157 Footnote 158

Footnote 1

2021 and 2016 population

Statistics Canada is committed to protect the privacy of all Canadians and the confidentiality of the data they provide to us. As part of this commitment, some population counts of geographic areas are adjusted in order to ensure confidentiality.

The adjustment to counts of the total population for any dissemination block is controlled to ensure that the population counts for dissemination areas will always be within 5 of the actual values. The adjustment has no impact on the population counts of census divisions and large census subdivisions.

Footnote 2

Total private dwellings

Private dwelling refers to a separate set of living quarters with a private entrance either from outside the building or from a common hall, lobby, vestibule or stairway inside the building. The entrance to the dwelling must be one that can be used without passing through the living quarters of some other person or group of persons.

Footnote 3

Private dwellings occupied by usual residents

A private dwelling occupied by usual residents refers to a private dwelling in which a person or a group of persons is permanently residing. Also included are private dwellings whose usual residents are temporarily absent on May 11, 2021.

Footnote 4

The category 'Movable dwelling' includes mobile homes and other movable dwellings such as houseboats, recreational vehiclesand railroad cars.

Footnote 5

A census family is defined as a married couple (with or without children, a common-law couple (with or without children) or a one-parent family. For more information, refer to theCensus Dictionary: Census family structure.

Footnote 6

There is no age restriction on children. Includes children living with a grandparent or grandparents without a parent present.

Footnote 7

Includes foster children.

Footnote 8

Multigenerational households represent all households where there is at least one person who is both the grandparent of a person in the household and the parent of another person in the same household. They also represent all households where there is at least one person who is both the child of a person in the household and the grandchild of another person in the same household. In previous censuses, multigenerational households were only created based on the former definition, not the latter. As a result, there may be small differences in counts for 2011 and 2016 in archived tables.

Footnote 9

Excludes multigenerational households.

Footnote 10

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

  • Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
  • retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
  • benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
  • child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
  • social assistance benefits;
  • workers' compensation benefits;
  • Canada workers benefit (CWB);
  • Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
  • other income from government sources.

For the 2021 Census, this includes various benefits from new and existing federal, provincial and territorial government income programs intended to provide financial support to individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures implemented to minimize the spread of the virus.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Footnote 11

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

  • Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
  • retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
  • benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
  • child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
  • social assistance benefits;
  • workers' compensation benefits;
  • Canada workers benefit (CWB);
  • Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
  • other income from government sources.

For the 2021 Census, this includes various benefits from new and existing federal, provincial and territorial government income programs intended to provide financial support to individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures implemented to minimize the spread of the virus.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Footnote 12

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 13

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 14

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 15

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

  • Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
  • retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
  • benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
  • child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
  • social assistance benefits;
  • workers' compensation benefits;
  • Canada workers benefit (CWB);
  • Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
  • other income from government sources.

For the 2021 Census, this includes various benefits from new and existing federal, provincial and territorial government income programs intended to provide financial support to individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures implemented to minimize the spread of the virus.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 16

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 17

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 18

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

  • Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
  • retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
  • benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
  • child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
  • social assistance benefits;
  • workers' compensation benefits;
  • Canada workers benefit (CWB);
  • Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
  • other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

Employment Insurance (EI) benefits - All Employment Insurance (EI) benefits received during the reference period, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, compassionate care, work sharing, retraining, and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal EI Program or the Québec parental insurance plan.

The reference period for these variables is calendar year 2019. These variables are intended for comparison with their 2020 equivalent and other 2019 income variables. Income for 2019 is presented in 2020 constant dollars.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Footnote 19

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

  • Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
  • retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
  • benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
  • child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
  • social assistance benefits;- workers' compensation benefits;
  • Canada workers benefit (CWB);
  • Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
  • other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

Employment Insurance (EI) benefits - All Employment Insurance (EI) benefits received during the reference period, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, compassionate care, work sharing, retraining, and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal EI Program or the Québec parental insurance plan.

The reference period for these variables is calendar year 2019. These variables are intended for comparison with their 2020 equivalent and other 2019 income variables. Income for 2019 is presented in 2020 constant dollars.

Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Footnote 20

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of households are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Footnote 21

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of households are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Footnote 22

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of families are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Economic family structure - The combination of relatives that comprise a family. Classification on this variable considers the presence or absence of: married spouses or common-law partners; children; and other relatives. For more information, refer to the variable 'economic family structure,' Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 23

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of persons not in families are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Footnote 24

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

Footnote 25

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • - income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Average income - The average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of families are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Economic family structure - The combination of relatives that comprise a family. Classification on this variable considers the presence or absence of: married spouses or common-law partners; children; and other relatives. For more information, refer to the variable 'economic family structure,' Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 26

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

  • statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
  • statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
  • statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

  • employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
  • income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
  • income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
  • other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
  • income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, COVID-19 benefits and Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

  • one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
  • capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
  • employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
  • voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of persons not in families are calculated for all units, whether or not they had income.

Footnote 27

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Prior to the 2021 Census, the LIM thresholds and the LIM low income statistics were derived and reported for the population residing outside of the territories and off reserve only. It was based on the consideration that the income, prices and expenditure patterns could be quite different in the territories and on reserve, and thus, could make the interpretation of the LIM low-income statistics difficult.

Since the 2016 Census, there were research studies that analyzed the feasibility of defining LIM thresholds that include the population living in the territories and on reserve, and examined the aspects that should be considered when interpreting low-income statistics based on this definition. With the guidance and support of such research, the 2021 Census expanded the coverage of the LIM concept to all regions in Canada, making it the only low-income concept that is applicable to the population living in the territories and on reserve.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 2.4 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2020, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 2.5 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2020, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Footnote 28

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2021 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2021 Census, the reference period for income data is the calendar year 2020, unless otherwise specified.

Footnote 29

The Gini coefficient, or Gini index, is a measure of inequality that indicates how equally income is distributed for a given population. It measures how much an income distribution deviates from perfect equality. Values of the Gini coefficient can range from 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that income is equally divided among the population, with all units receiving exactly the same amount of income. At the opposite extreme, a Gini coefficient of 1 denotes a perfectly unequal distribution, where one unit has all of the income in the economy.

For the census, Gini coefficients are calculated for three types of adjusted household income—market income, total income and after tax income. Adjusted income is computed by dividing the household income by a factor equal to the square root of the household size (known as the equivalence scale). This adjustment for different household sizes takes into account economies of scale. It reflects the fact that the needs of a household increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

The P90/P10 ratio is a measure of inequality. It is the ratio of the 90th and the 10th percentile of the adjusted household after-tax income. The 90th percentile means 90% of the population has income that falls below this threshold. The 10th percentile means 10% of the population has income that falls below this threshold.

Footnote 30

Knowledge of official languagesrefers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 31

First official language spokenrefers to the first official language (English or French) spoken by the person.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 32

Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned more than one language at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has more than one mother tongue only if they learned these languages at the same time, and still understands them. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. A child who has not yet learned to speak has more than one mother tongue only if these languages are spoken to them equally often so that the child learns these languages at the same time.

n.i.e. = not included elsewhere

n.o.s. = not otherwise specified

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 33

Users should be aware that estimates associated with Indigenous languages are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain reserves and settlements in the Census of Population.

Footnote 34

All languages spoken at homerefers to all languages that the person speaks at home on a regular basis at the time of data collection.

n.i.e. = not included elsewhere

n.o.s. = not otherwise specified

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 35

Language spoken most often at home refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as "spoken most often at home" if the languages are spoken equally often.

For a person who lives alone, the language spoken most often at home is the language in which they feel most comfortable. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this is the language spoken most often to the child at home. Where more than one language is spoken to the child, the language spoken most often at home is the language spoken most often. If more than one language is spoken equally often to the child, then these languages are included here.

n.i.e. = not included elsewhere

n.o.s. = not otherwise specified

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 36

Other language(s) spoken regularly at homerefers to the language(s), if any, that the person speaks at home on a regular basis at the time of data collection, other than the language(s) they speak most often at home.

Comparisons to previous Census data is not recommended for the 'Other languages spoken regularly at home' variable.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 37

Knowledge of official languagesrefers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

Knowledge of non-official languagesrefers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. The number of languages that can be reported may vary between surveys, depending on the objectives of the survey.

n.i.e. = not included elsewhere

n.o.s. = not otherwise specified

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 38

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain reserves and settlements in the Census of Population.

For more information on Indigenous variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Indigenous Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021 and the Indigenous Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 39

This category includes persons who identify as First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and/or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who report being Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada), and/or those who report having membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

Footnote 40

This category includes persons who identify as only one Indigenous group, that is First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

Footnote 41

This category includes persons who identify as any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and/or Inuk (Inuit).

Footnote 42

This category includes persons who do not identify as First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who report having Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or Membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

Footnote 43

Registered or Treaty Indian statusrefers to whether or not a person is a Registered or Treaty Indian. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

Footnote 44

Tenure refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling. The private dwelling may be situated on rented or leased land or be part of a condominium. A household is considered to own their dwelling if some member of the household owns the dwelling even if it is not fully paid for, for example if there is a mortgage or some other claim on it. A household is considered to rent their dwelling if no member of the household owns the dwelling. A household is considered to rent that dwelling even if the dwelling is provided without cash rent or at a reduced rent, or if the dwelling is part of a cooperative.

For historical and statutory reasons, shelter occupancy on Indian reserves or settlements does not lend itself to the usual classification by standard tenure categories. Therefore, a special category, 'dwelling provided by the local government, First Nation or Indian band,' has been created for census purposes.

Footnote 45

Condominium status refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

Footnote 46

Bedrooms refers to rooms in a private dwelling that are designed mainly for sleeping purposes even if they are now used for other purposes, such as guest rooms and television rooms. Also included are rooms used as bedrooms now, even if they were not originally built as bedrooms, such as bedrooms in a finished basement. Bedrooms exclude rooms designed for another use during the day such as dining rooms and living rooms even if they may be used for sleeping purposes at night. By definition, one-room private dwellings such as bachelor or studio apartments have zero bedrooms.

Footnote 47

Rooms refers to enclosed areas within a private dwelling which are finished and suitable for year round living. The number of rooms in a private dwelling includes kitchens, bedrooms and finished rooms in the attic or basement. The number of rooms in a private dwelling excludes bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes. Partially divided rooms are considered to be separate rooms if they are considered as such by the respondent (e.g., L-shaped dining-room and living-room arrangements).

Footnote 48

Number of persons per room - Refers to an indicator of the level of crowding in a private dwelling. It is calculated by dividing the number of persons in the household by the number of rooms in the dwelling.

Footnote 49

Housing suitability refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the NOS.

'Housing suitability' assesses the required number of bedrooms for a household based on the age, sex, and relationships among household members. An alternative variable, 'persons per room,' considers all rooms in a private dwelling and the number of household members.

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

Footnote 50

Period of construction refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed.

This refers to the period in which the building was completed, not the time of any later remodeling, additions or conversions.

For properties having multiple residential structures, this refers to the period in which the most recent structure was completed.

Footnote 51

Includes data up to May 11, 2021.

Footnote 52

Dwelling condition refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

Footnote 53

Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.

Footnote 54

Primary household maintainer - The first person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities for the dwelling. When more than one member of the household contributes to the payments, the first person listed is chosen as the primary household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making any such payments, the first person listed is selected by default.

The order of the persons in a household is determined by the order in which they are listed on the questionnaire. Generally, an adult is listed first followed, if applicable, by their spouse or common-law partner and then by their children. The order does not necessarily correspond to the proportion of household payments made by each person.

Footnote 55

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio - Refers to the proportion of average total income of household which is spent on shelter costs.

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio is calculated for private households who reported a total household income greater than zero.

Private households located on an agricultural operation that is operated by a member of the household, and households who reported a zero or negative total household income are excluded.

The relatively high shelter-costs-to-household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2021, while household total income is reported for the year 2020. As well, for some households, the 2020 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

For more information on household total income or shelter costs, refer to the Census Dictionary: Total income and Shelter cost.

Footnote 56

Acceptable housing refers to whether a household meets each of the three indicator thresholds established by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation for housing adequacy, suitability and affordability.

Housing indicator thresholds are defined as follows:

  • Adequate housing is reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs.
  • Affordable housing has shelter costs equal to less than 30% of total before-tax household income.
  • Suitable housing has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of resident households according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS), conceived by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and provincial and territorial representatives.

Acceptable housing identifies which thresholds the household falls below, if any. Housing that is adequate in condition, suitable in size and affordable is considered to be acceptable.

Households below and above the thresholds are based on the indicators for which individual households can be assessed. Farm and on-reserve households whose housing does not meet either or both of the suitability and adequacy thresholds are counted in the total of households below the thresholds. Farm and on-reserve households who live in housing that meets both the suitability and adequacy thresholds are counted in the total of households above the thresholds (even though it is not possible to assess housing affordability for these households). Farm households and on-reserve households cannot be assessed for housing affordability because the concept is not applicable.

Housing affordability is assessed for owner and tenant households with household total income greater than zero in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings.

Footnote 57

Core housing need refers to whether a private household's housing falls below at least one of the indicator thresholds for housing adequacy, affordability or suitability, and would have to spend 30% or more of its total before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing that is acceptable (attains all three housing indicator thresholds). Housing indicator thresholds are defined as follows: Adequate housing is reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs. Affordable housing has shelter costs equal to less than 30% of total before-tax household income. Suitable housing has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of resident households according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS), conceived by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and provincial and territorial representatives. Only private, non-farm, non-reserve and owner- or renter-households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios less than 100% are assessed for 'core housing need.' Non-family households with at least one maintainer aged 15 to 29 attending school are considered not to be in 'core housing need' regardless of their housing circumstances. Attending school is considered a transitional phase, and low incomes earned by student households are viewed as being a temporary condition.

Footnote 58

Presence of mortgage payments refers to whether an owner household makes regular mortgage or loan payments for their dwelling.

Footnote 59

Shelter cost refers to the average monthly total of all shelter expenses paid by households.

Shelter costs for owner households include, where applicable, mortgage payments, property taxes and condominium fees, along with the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services. For renter households, shelter costs include, where applicable, the rent and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services. For households living in a dwelling provided by the local government, First Nation or Indian band, shelter costs include, where applicable, the monthly use or occupancy payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services.

Footnote 60

Value (owner estimated) refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the asset were to be sold.

In the context of dwelling, it refers to the value of the entire dwelling, including the value of the land it is on and of any other structure, such as a garage, which is on the property. If the dwelling is located in a building which contains several dwellings, or a combination of residential and business premises, all of which the household owns, the value is estimated as a portion of the market value that applies only to the dwelling in which the household resides.

Footnote 61

Subsidized housing refers to whether a renter household lives in a dwelling that is subsidized. Subsidized housing includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

Footnote 62

'Indigenous ancestry' refers to whether a person has ancestry associated with the Indigenous peoples of Canada, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis, and/or Inuit. Aboriginal peoples (referred to here as Indigenous peoples) of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, Section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. The term 'Aboriginal' has been replaced with the updated term of 'Indigenous' when referring to individuals who identify themselves as First Nations people, Métis and/or Inuit. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain reserves and settlements in the Census of Population.

For more information on Indigenous variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Indigenous Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021 and the Indigenous Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 63

'Indigenous ancestry (only)' includes persons who have First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and/or Inuit ancestry. It excludes persons with non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 64

'Single Indigenous ancestry (only)' includes persons who have only one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry. It excludes persons with non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 65

'Multiple Indigenous ancestries (only)' includes persons who have two or more of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and Inuit ancestries. It excludes persons with non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 66

'Indigenous and non-Indigenous ancestries' includes persons who have First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and/or Inuit ancestry, as well as non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 67

'Single Indigenous and non-Indigenous ancestries' includes persons who have First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry, as well as non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 68

'Multiple Indigenous and non-Indigenous ancestries' includes persons who have two or more of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis and Inuit ancestries, as well as non-Indigenous ancestry.

Footnote 69

'Non-Indigenous ancestry (only)' includes persons who have non-Indigenous ancestry only.

Footnote 70

'Citizenship' refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization.

For more information on citizenship variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 71

'Canadian citizens' includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country.

Footnote 72

'Not Canadian citizens' includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.

Footnote 73

'Immigrant status' refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 74

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

Footnote 75

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2021 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who were admitted to Canada on or prior to May 11, 2021.

Footnote 76

Includes immigrants who were admitted to Canada on or prior to May 11, 2021.

Footnote 77

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country with a usual place of residence in Canada and who have a work or study permit or who have claimed refugee status (asylum claimants). Family members living with work or study permit holders are also included, unless these family members are already Canadian citizens, landed immigrants or permanent residents.

Footnote 78

'Age at immigration' refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2021 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who were admitted to Canada on or prior to May 11, 2021.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 79

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2021 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who were admitted to Canada on or prior to May 11, 2021.

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

'Place of birth' refers to the name of the geographic location where the person was born. The geographic location is specified according to geographic boundaries current at the time of data collection, not the geographic boundaries at the time of birth. In the 2021 Census of Population, the geographic location refers to a country or area of interest if the person was born outside Canada.

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 80

Serbia excludes Kosovo.

Footnote 81

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

Footnote 82

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

Footnote 83

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

Footnote 84

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

Footnote 85

The full name of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

Footnote 86

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

Footnote 87

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

Footnote 88

'Recent immigrant' refers to an immigrant who first obtained his or her landed immigrant or permanent resident status between January 1, 2016 and May 11, 2021.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by recent immigrants at the Canada level.

'Place of birth' refers to the name of the geographic location where the person was born. The geographic location is specified according to geographic boundaries current at the time of data collection, not the geographic boundaries at the time of birth. In the 2021 Census of Population, the geographic location refers to a country or area of interest if the person was born outside Canada.

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 89

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

Footnote 90

Ireland is also referred to as Republic of Ireland.

Footnote 91

The full name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.

Footnote 92

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

Footnote 93

'Generation status' refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada.

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 94

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.

Footnote 95

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

Footnote 96

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with all parents born in Canada.

Footnote 97

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on their application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2021 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who were admitted to Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 11, 2021.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 98

'Economic immigrants' includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada's economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.

Footnote 99

'Principal applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the principal applicant on their application for permanent residence.

Footnote 100

'Secondary applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on their application for permanent residence.

Footnote 101

'Immigrants sponsored by family' includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grand-parent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms 'family class' or 'family reunification' are sometimes used to refer to this category.

Footnote 102

'Refugees' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.

Footnote 103

'Other immigrants' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.

Footnote 104

'Pre-admission experience' refers to the category under which an immigrant was authorized to enter Canada for temporary residence purposes before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident.

In the 2021 Census of Population, data on pre-admission experience are available for immigrants who were admitted to Canada between January 1, 1980, and May 11, 2021.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 105

This category includes immigrants who had an asylum claim before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident. This category includes immigrants who had an asylum claim with a work and/or study permit before admission.

Footnote 106

This category includes immigrants who had a work permit only before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident. A work permit is a document issued by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada that authorizes a person to work on a temporary basis in Canada. Work permits set out conditions for the worker, such as the type of work and employer, location of work, and timeline of work.

Footnote 107

This category includes immigrants who had a study permit only before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident. A study permit is a document issued by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada that authorizes a person to study at an educational institution in Canada for the duration of the program of study.

Footnote 108

This category includes immigrants who had both a work and a study permit before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident.

Footnote 109

This category includes immigrants who had a permit other than a work permit, study permit, or asylum claim before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident.

Footnote 110

This category includes immigrants who did not have a permit for temporary residence purposes before admission as a landed immigrant or permanent resident.

Footnote 111

'Visible minority' refers to whether a person is a visible minority or not, as defined by the Employment Equity Act. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour." The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Arab, Latin American, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

In 2021 Census analytical and communications products, the term "visible minority" has been replaced by the terms "racialized population" or "racialized groups", reflecting the increased use of these terms in the public sphere.

For more information on visible minority and population group variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 112

In 2021 Census analytical and communications products, the term "visible minority" has been replaced by the terms "racialized population" or "racialized groups", reflecting the increased use of these terms in the public sphere.

Footnote 113

The abbreviation "n.i.e." means "not included elsewhere." This category includes persons who provided responses that are classified as a visible minority, but that cannot be classified with a specific visible minority group. Such responses include, for example, "Guyanese," "Pacific Islander," "Polynesian," "Tibetan" and "West Indian."

Footnote 114

In 2021 Census analytical and communications products, this category is referred to as "the rest of the population."

Footnote 115

'Ethnic or cultural origin' refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's ancestors. Ancestors may have Indigenous origins, origins that refer to different countries or other origins that may not refer to different countries.

The sum of the ethnic or cultural origins in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic or cultural origin in the census.

The ethnic groups selected are the most frequently reported at the Canada level.

For more information on ethnic or cultural origin variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Ethnic or Cultural Origin Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 116

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating French origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "French").

Footnote 117

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating British Isles origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "British," "United Kingdom").

Footnote 118

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Caucasian (White) origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Caucasian").

Footnote 119

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating First Nations (North American Indian) origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "First Nations," "North American Indian").

Footnote 120

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating European origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "European").

Footnote 121

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating African origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "African").

Footnote 122

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Arab origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Arab").

Footnote 123

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Asian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Asian").

Footnote 124

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Cree origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Cree").

Footnote 125

The abbreviation "n.i.e." means "not included elsewhere." This category includes responses indicating Christian origins, not included elsewhere (e.g., "Christian," "Baptist," "Catholic").

Footnote 126

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating North American Indigenous origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Aboriginal," "Indigenous").

Footnote 127

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating South Asian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "South Asian").

Footnote 128

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Mi'kmaq origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Mi'kmaq").

Footnote 129

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Northern European origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Northern European," "Scandinavian").

Footnote 130

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Latin American," "South American").

Footnote 131

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Black origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Black").

Footnote 132

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Inuit origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Inuit").

Footnote 133

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Eastern European origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Eastern European").

Footnote 134

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating East or Southeast Asian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "East Asian," "Southeast Asian").

Footnote 135

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating West or Central Asian or Middle Eastern origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Central Asian," "Middle Eastern," "West Asian").

Footnote 136

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Caribbean origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Caribbean").

Footnote 137

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating West Indian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "West Indian").

Footnote 138

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Hispanic origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Hispanic").

Footnote 139

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Western European origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Western European").

Footnote 140

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Czechoslovakian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Czechoslovakian").

Footnote 141

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Yugoslavian origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Yugoslavian").

Footnote 142

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Slavic origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Slavic").

Footnote 143

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Innu origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Innu," "Montagnais").

Footnote 144

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Celtic origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Celtic").

Footnote 145

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating North American origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "North American").

Footnote 146

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Dene origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Dene").

Footnote 147

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Blackfoot origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Blackfoot").

Footnote 148

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Iroquoian (Haudenosaunee) origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Iroquois," "Haudenosaunee").

Footnote 149

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating North African origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "North African").

Footnote 150

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Southern or East African origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "East African").

Footnote 151

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified.' This category includes responses indicating Anishinaabe origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Anishinaabe").

Footnote 152

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Bantu origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Bantu").

Footnote 153

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Akan origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Akan").

Footnote 154

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses indicating Central or West African origins, not otherwise specified (e.g., "Central African," "West African").

Footnote 155

'Religion' refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. This variable shows the aggregated responses to the religion question. For infants or children, religion refers to the specific religious group or denomination in which they are being raised, if any.Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.For more information on religion variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Religion Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Footnote 156

The abbreviation "n.o.s." means "not otherwise specified." This category includes responses of "Christian," not otherwise specified (e.g., "Christian," "Christianity").

Footnote 157

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 11, 2021, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Footnote 158

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 11, 2021, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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